Saturday, February 8, 2020
TERM PAPER - Essay Example Yet in an information security survey of 4,255 information technology and information security managers, forty one percent of respondents said they do not have formal security policies (Anthes, 1998). When asked to identify potential threats to their security, the respondents were almost twice as likely to identify hackers over employees as the threat. However, from the literature, it appears that when comparing outside hacking to insider intruding, the greatest threat to computer security comes from the latter (Salierno, 2000; Anthes, 1998; Davis, 1997; Ernst & Young Survey, 1995; Fillon, 1990; Jelcich, 1987). Given that the literature seems to indicate employees pose the greatest threat to information security in general, this leads more specifically to questions about the security of medical records at hospitals. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of the impact of information security policy and its effect on the number and seriousness of computer abuse incidents that involve the security of personal medical information maintained at hospitals. In addition, further research may be needed to convince other organizations that information security policy is a vital ingredient in the formula for maintaining a competitive advantage (Schneider and Therkalsen, 1990). The proliferation of electronic patient records (EPR) within the health care information infrastructure presents significant benefits for healthcare providers and their patients, but also creates challenges for those healthcare providers. The benefits include enhanced patient autonomy, improved clinical treatment, advances in health research, and public health surveillance The challenge to providers due to this proliferation is the creation of legal challenges in three interrelated areas: privacy of identifiable health information, reliability and quality of health care, and tort based liability (Hodge, et. al., 1999). Our medical records contain some very mundane information about us such as our height, weight, color of hair and eyes, blood type, and our bouts with colds and other illnesses. However, our medical records also contain information on our fertility, emotions, psychiatric makeup, sexual behavior, substance abuse, and genetic predisposition to disease. Access co this information must be controlled because it is information that could potentially be used to the detriment of the patient (Rindfleisch, 1997). Just as corporations protect their proprietary information, patient health records must be
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Zara Case Study Essay First of all, Zara is the flagship brand of the Spanish retail group, Inditex SA, owned by the Spanish Amancio Ortega Gaona. Ortega started his career in the fashion design field, developing his own designs, hitting upon the base-formula of his Group: reproducing popular fashions using less expensive materials in order to sell high-demand clothing items at lower prices. From manufacturing, Ortega soon turned to retail and opened his first and most successful retail store ZARA in 1975 in A Coruna, Spain, where the Inditex Group is headquartered. Once the new OrtegaÃ¢â¬â¢s retail format, started to be well received by the public, Zara, and the Inditex Group in general, expanded and opened new stores, first all around the Spain, and then all around the world: in 1988 Zara opened its first store abroad, in Portugal. Zara is now present in 72 countries, with more than 1500 Zara stores worldwide. Its vertically integrated structure, where design, production, distribution and retailing are integrated, makes Zara a unique and particular example of successful retail company. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s direct competition may be its largest threat, due to their wide range of merchandise categories. However, with its unique and innovative strategy, Zara has a competitive advantage on traditional retailers in the apparel industry. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s principal competitors are: Arcadia Group, The Gap Inc. , Hennes Mauritz (HM), Benetton Group S. p. a. , Vivarte, Gruppo Coin S. p. a. , Kiabi S. A. , La Redoute, Charles Vogele Holding AG, Mango S. A. Zara clothing has two basic product divisions: MenÃ¢â¬â¢s and WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s apparel. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s catalogue includes also childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and for teen-agerÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing (Zara TRF) as well. Zara offers more products and it offers them more often than similar companies: about 12000 designs introduced every year, with a shelf life of about 4 weeks, compared with 2000-4000 items of its competitors. Three are the winning formulae that Zara use to reach these results: Short supply chain lead times : Zara can quickly indentify the prevalent and winning fashion trend of the moment, in order to quickly produce a response in terms of new style within 2-4 weeks. Lower quantities (in each style): reducing the quantities manufactured in each style and changing the styles every week, people do not postpone the purchase of an item, because they know that it would not be available later. More styles: instead of more quantities per style; even if a style sells out quickly, there are new styles already ready to replace the older ones. Zara merchandising strategy eschew every collaboration with big name designers and multimillion-dollar advertising campaigns: Zara focuses instead in choosing highly visible and premium locations for its stores, that are given priority in their interior and exterior design. Ã¢â¬Å"Today, many companies are looking to Zara as the new industry standard for how to run a retail business, which shows that ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s business model is becoming the wave of the futureÃ¢â¬ .
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Prostitution Should be Legal on College Campuses I am sure that there are some of you that are thinking, "Prostitution on college campuses, he can't be serious!?" but indeed I am. After all, how hard have you ever thought about the subject? Probably not much, if ever. I mean really, the most any typical guy usually thinks while walking across campus or at a party is geeze, I wish I could get to know her. Well, fortunately for you I am going to give you the low down as to why legalizing prostitution should be implemented on college campuses. I know most of you guys will agree, and possibly some girls, with what I have to say, but I'm sure there will be many critics opposing this change. However, with appropriate monitoring, I believe that State U. should legalize campus prostitution. First, I must say that I am not trying to create the impression in people's minds that I want to see young college students, especially women, roaming the campus streets trying to turn a trick. That would just be insane because that person could only end up getting hurt. What I am envisioning is an escort service. Girls and guys would be able to dial a number where they can acquire the company of someone for the evening. True identities of all parties involved would be concealed to respect privacy, and only ISU students would be allowed to use the service. This way, it would just be the college students, and not the community that would benefit from this service. One of the things that college students suffer from the most is stress, why else do they break the law and go out and get trashed from drinking each weekend? By getting overly stimulated by alcohol, they forget about the stressful week that they just endured. Sex could possibly become a substitute for this, therefore reducing the number of underage drinkers. After all, it has been proven that a little physical activity can rejuvenate the body and leave you feeling refreshed and energized; ready to take on new and challenging tasks. On the flip side though, it can be argued that some people might take advantage of the system and try to pay for sex when they are not truly stressed out. A person may simply want to have sex and making an appointment may possibly take away the service from someone who truly needs it.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence SUBLEVEL CAVING TECHNIQUE SIMPLICITY AND LOW COST ARE THE ESSENCE Author: Partha Das Sharma, B. Tech(Hons. ) in Mining Engineering, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 1. Introduction Ã¢â¬â Sublevel caving is usually carried out when mining of the orebody through an open pit method is no longer economically feasible. Mining now proceeds underground, underneath the open pit. At first, both a raise and a network of tunnels are made.At different sublevels, jumbos are used for long hole drilling, drilling directly upwards into the roof. These holes are then charged with explosives and blasted. As the roofs cave in, the rock from the ground surface will cave in to the underground as well. Scoop trams or Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicles transport the muck, loosened rocks, to an ore pass where the rocks are lifted to the surface. Drilling and blasting takes place at differ ent underground levels of the mine at the same time.As the blasted rock, muck, is continuously transported to the ore pass, more blasting will encourage the roof to cave in to the void and further into the drift. This is repeated until blasting, caving and transporting depletes the entire orebody. 2. Modern day Sublevel caving Ã¢â¬â The sublevel caving technique, as the method is applied today, the whole quantity of ore between the different sublevels is broken using Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 1Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence controlled drilling and blasting. Sublevel caving is in many respe cts simple. It can be used in orebodies with very different properties and it is easy to mechanize. In sublevel caving, ore is developed from a series of sublevels spaced at regular intervals throughout the orebody. Mining begins at the top of the orebody. A series of ring patterns is drilled and blasted from each sublevel. Broken ore is mucked out after each blast and the overlying waste rock caves on top of the broken ore. This technique is inexpensive, highly mechanized and yields a large amount of muck.It is normally used in massive, steeply-dipping orebodies with considerable strike length. Since dilution and low recoveries are unavoidable, sublevel caving is used to mine lowgrade, low-value ore-bodies. However, studies are going on in various levels to eliminate the shortcoming of the system. The designs which are used and the measures which can be taken to eliminate the disadvantages are less understood. Possibly the modern version of the method was developed in the iron mine s of Sweden. Over the past few years, the scale of sublevel caving has increased markedly with LKAB being a leader in this regard.Today, with the continuing push to increase mining scale, a fundamental question is whether the gravity flow principles which served as the design basis for the small-scale sublevel caving mine designs of the past can be applied at much larger scales or whether some other approach is required. In fact, in design and operating practices, sublevel caving is among the most advanced of all mining methods. Sound engineering is indispensable to its conduct. The reason is related to the complexity of the caving action and the necessity of controlling it. The increased sublevel interval requires diligence in drilling, loading and blasting practices.The advent of improved drilling technology has made increased sublevel intervals possible in the sublevel cave mine. Hydraulic tube rod drill rigs have made long Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 2 Author: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence up-holes accurate with less than 2% deviation. Apart, blasting pattern used has also plays very important role.Proper fragmentation and blasting efficiency is evaluated by measuring the percentage of muck which is able to pass the designated blast size. 3. Description of sublevel caving method Ã¢â¬â An underground mining method used in large, steeply dipping orebodies where the wall rock is of an incompetent nature. Parallel drives are developed in the ore on equally spaced levels. The ore is then drilled and blasted using longholes between levels, often in a circular or fan pattern, on retreat. The weight of the rock is used to assist breakage. The upper levels are mined ahead of lower levels.Broken ore is extracted from the drive before the next blast takes place. The wall rock caves in when the ore is extracted. As discussed, in sublevel caving, the hanging wall is allowed to cave in as the ore is drilled, blasted and removed. The wall caving is induced by mining the ore in controlled sequence, usually from hanging wall to footwall and from top to bottom. Sublevel caving is often used in conjunction with surface mining. Sublevel caving extracts the ore via sublevels, which are developed in the orebody at regular vertical spacing. Each sublevel features systematic layout with parallel drifts, along or across the orebody.In the wide orebody, sublevel drifts start from the footwall drive, to continue across, reaching the hanging wall. In the orebody lesser width, sublevel drifts are branched off in both directions, from a centre crosscut drive. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 3 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence Development volume to prepare sublevel caving is extensive, compared to other mining methods.However, development is mainly drifting to prepare sublevels. Drifting is a simple and routine job for the mechanised mine. Development of sublevels is done efficiently, in an environment of multiple faces on one sublevel available to drill rigs and loaders. A ramp connection is needed to connect different sublevels, and communicate with main transport routes. Ore passes are also required, at strategically locations along sublevels, for LHD-loaders to dump ore from sublevels, to be collected and transported on the haulage level below. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 4 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence Longhole rigs drill the ore section above the drift, in a fan spread pattern. Longhole drilling is a procedure which is done independent of other jobs, often well ahead of charging. Thus, drilling and charging-blasting longholes can be timed to suit the mineÃ¢â¬â¢s production schedules.Blasting on each sublevel starts at the hanging wall, mining then retreats toward the footwall. Miners aim the cave to follow an approximately straight front, and adjacent d rifts mined at similar pace. A section through the cave to show upper sublevels one step ahead of sublevels underneath. Blasting the longhole fan breaks the ore volume covered by the fan-pattern. As the cave is filled with fractured rock, most of the fresh ore remains in the cave, while some caves into the drift opening. Mucking out with LHD-loaders creates a cave pattern of ore and waste from above.Loading continues until the operator decides that waste dilution is too high, and stops the mucking, and transfers to a nearby drift heading with a fresh cave. In the meantime, the empty heading is occupied by the charging team, to charge next ring of longholes. Ore handling involves mucking out at the cave, transport on sublevels and dumping into ore passes. Waste dilution and ore losses are drawbacks for sublevel caving. Waste dilution varies between 15 and 40%, ore losses from 15 % to 25 %, depending on local conditions. Dilution is of less influence for orebodies with diffuse boundar ies, where the host rock contains low grades minerals.Parameters directly influence flow behaviour have been found to include the geometry of the extraction layout and drives, sublevel height, blast ring design, material characteristics of the blasted and waste material, and draw control methodology. In most of the sublevel caving system blasting parameters dominate in association with recovery when compared to drawpoint and geological parameters. Generally, sublevel caving method employs use of fan drilling using long and smalldiameter holes, between sublevels or drill drifts to undercut and blast the ore-zone. An initial slot is developed at the wallrock, and vertical uphole fans are rilled in a diamond pattern from sublevel in sequence. Generally, eight holes, inclined 80 to 85 degrees toward the slot, are drilled. Hole diameter average 51 mm, Burden and Spacing vary from 1. 2 to 1. 8 m and 1. 5 to 1. 8 m respectively. Blasting is performed against broken waste rock as wall rock caves. Generally, specific-charge range from 0. 3 to 0. 4 kg/ton. 4. Below are some salient features of Sublevel caving technique: Application * Weak walls and strong ore preferred though weak ore can be mined too. * Steep dip: A vertical dip is best, while dip>60 is fine too.Possibility of loss of ore in non-vertical steep dips Considerable loss of reserves in flat dips * Preferably, the ore and the rock should be easily separable * Surface should be amenable to caving (not an inhabited or the watershed area etc) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 5 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence Development * Signif icant. Almost 20% of the ore is mine during development * Sublevels are established generally at 7. -12. 2 m vertical intervals and about 10. 7 m horizontal intervals The vertical interval is dependent on the drilling accuracy and the dip of the orebody The horizontal and vertical spacings affect the eccentricity of the cave * The size and shape of the production drift affects the draw Drift should be as wide as possible Should give good support to the back and the brows If the back is arched, the draw is mostly at the center and none on the sides If the back has to be arched for ground support, the drifts should be closer Ore remnants left behind (due to being out of reach of LHDÃ¢â¬â¢s) increase with height.Therefore, drift height should be as small as possible (usually about 3-3. 2 m). * Slot raises are driven at the hanging wall end of the production drift all the way up to the next level * Haulage levels driven in waste In wide orebodies, transverse layouts may be used (ore w idths should be > 12-15 m) Here, the production drifts are perpendicular to the strike Recovery better than longitudinal layouts Haulage drift in waste (footwall), about 9 m from ore contact. This distance is maintained so that blasting does not occur too close to it.Diamond drilling is done to obtain ore boundaries so that the haulage drift is neither too close nor too far away. o o * Ramps may be driven at 15 -18 , to production levels to provide access * Long, fan holes drilled 70-80 degrees forward (about 8 holes Production totaling 100 m in a ring) * Side holes, if drilled, should be steeper than 70 degree Side holes reduce length of holes driven up from the level below If flat holes drilled to the sides, however, the blasted material from the side holes cannot be extracted from the working level.Therefore, the neighboring fan hole blasted material does not get enough room to expand * Brows should be supported if necessary If brows collapse, ore floods the drift and covers some rings Also, the loader has problems loading as the ore does not stack high If brows are uneven, the ore funnels down the high spots Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 6 Author: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence If sloughing or high brows are noticed from development, it may be decided to blast more than 2 rings just to advance through the area * If drilling is not accurate, a bridge/arch may be left in the stope Re-slotting may become necessary * Powder factor high as blasting is always against blasted muck (almost twice that of blasting against an open face) * LHDÃ¢â¬â¢s used for mucking * Good ventilation necessary as all working faces are dead ends * Productivity is quite high (about 36 ton/miner-shift) Comments * High dilution from caved waste.Ore losses occur as well since not all mined ore can be recovered. * Ore/waste flow cannot be predicted accurately prior to mining. * Probably the most economical when mining in weak strata * Development openings are not kept open for the entire life of mine. Once a level is extracted, the development openings are consumed. * Safe, since all mining activities are in small, protected openings. * High degree of mechanization possible. 5. Discussion on ore flow, drilling and blasting for efficient workings: * Fragmentation is of key importance to sublevel cave stope.Proper fragmentation of the ore column resulted in improved efficiency for the other mine operations and was critical to recovery. * Underground observations indicate that the draw-points must be wide enough to account for inconsistent blast results and provide regular flow. * The dr aw-point width determines the width and flow strength of the central channel which is important to achieving high recovery of the ring. * The middle holes of the ring are fired first and can make first use of the swell volume offered by the underlying sublevel drift. * The central holes are drilled subvertical, fairly parallel, and relatively close to one another.The result is a relatively high and uniform specific charge compared to the other holes in the round. Thus, one would expect the best, most uniform fragmentation. * The ore material in the central part of the round can make the best use of the effect of gravity in directing it to the drawpoint. * All of the material in the fan is drilled and blasted. * Because of the fan geometry, the amount of explosive/unit volume and hence the fragmentation varies throughout the fan. * The ore material in the centre part of the fan and the lower part of the fan has a much higher specific charge than that at the boundaries of the ring. Fu rthermore, the Ã¢â¬Å"caveÃ¢â¬ which lies in front of the blasted slice is an eclectic mixture of waste rock and ore remnants. * Its mobility varies with location and with time (it changes with the extraction geometry). Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 7 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence * Finally, most rock materials upon being blasted would like to bulk (swell) of the order of 50%. In sublevel caving, it is the sublevel drift located at the bottom end of the fan which is the primary provider of swell space for the ore in the ring. * It has been observed that, increased amounts of oversize in the r ing decreases recovery, proving the importance of proper fragmentation for sublevel cave operation. * Recoveries could be less than 60% if the ring is composed of 30% oversize. The oversize in the draw-point reduces the mobility of the ore, thus preventing high recovery. * Effective blast patterns also take into consideration the amount of benching. High powder factors are also required to reduce benching but may create excessive blast damage and over-break. * Practical solutions, such as, the blast pattern, blasthole size, primer sequencing, powder factor and degree of fragmentation are to be considered in order to be efficient. 6. Design parameters and some preliminary design rules Ã¢â¬â Design parameters in sublevel caving are largely a function of caving mechanics, the branch of rock mechanics related to the breakage and collapse of consolidated materials in place and their flow downward by gravity.Although, the ore has to be drilled and blasted, the overlying rock comprising capping or hanging wall is undercut and caves. Extremely careful controls must be exercised in drawing the ore to avoid excessive dilution. Draw control is the practice of regulating the withdrawal of ore in the sublevel crosscuts so as to optimize the economics of draw. Preliminary design rules: * Sublevel drift size (width (Wd) and height (Hd): determined based on equipment. * Sublevel interval (HS): the theoretical maximum value is based on the ability to drill long, straight holes.This, in turn, is based on the hole diameter (D). The actual limit is based on recovery and dilution considerations which are due to managing ore/waste pulsation. * Hole diameter (D): based on the available drilling equipment and the ability to charge long holes. * Spacing of the sublevel drifts (Sd): Sd = (2. 4 to 2. 7) Wd * Ring spacing (Burden B): Based upon the damage radius (Rd): B = 2 Rd Where: Rd/rh = 20 ( Peexp/PeANFO)? ( 2. 65/? rock)? ? Rd = damage radius (m); rh = hole radius (m); Peexp = e xplosion pressure for the explosive; PeANFO = explosion pressure for ANFO = 1600 MPa; ? ock = rock density (g/cm3); 2. 65 = density of typical rock (g/cm3). * Hole toe spacing (ST): based upon the burden ST = 1. 3 B. * Spacing for parallel holes (SP): based upon the burden SP = B. * Front inclination: 70Ã¢â¬â80 degrees (forward). Example: If it is assumed that: D = 115 mm; Drift dimensions: 7 m wide by 5 m high; Explosive: emulsion (Pe Exp = 3900 MPa); Rock density = 4. 6 g/cm3; Sublevel interval: 25 m based on drilling ability and control of pulsation. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. ail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ 8 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence One finds that the remaining dimensions are: Sublevel drift spacing: 17Ã¢â¬â19 m; Burden: 2. 7 m; Toe spacing (fanned): 3. 5 m; Toe spacing (parallel): 3 m; Front inclination: 80 degree selected. 7. Experience from LKAB, Sweden Ã¢â¬â Sub-level caving (SLC) is an important mass mining method, used at LKAB. The caved rock or debris at the SLC interface reduces the fragmentation and the swelling of the blasted ring and it dissipates the explosive energy.These phenomena may immobilize the blasted ring, causing ore losses. There are two major factors that influence the mobilization of the blasted ring, fragmentation and swelling of the blasted material. The caving process is influenced by also the stiffness of the waste rock, which is dependent in some way by the compaction that the blast ring contributes to. By using the acoustic impedance between the blasted material and the confining debris, a relationship for both fragmentation and compaction have been fou nd depending on material, specific charge and physical properties of the debris.Regression analysis has been used for both tasks, where the two statistical hypotheses clearly have good agreement with actual data i. e. the prediction models can forecast both the fragmentation and compaction for this set-up with reasonable accuracy The results can be comparable with confined blasting in large scale, this both that it have representative design parameters that fulfil in many ways the scaling laws and the second is that it can be linked to other comparisons between large-scale and small-scale, where the similarities have been shown.LKABÃ¢â¬â¢s Malmberget Ã¢â¬â The Malmberget mine consists of about 20 orebodies, of which ten are currently mined. Most of the deposit consists of magnetite ore, but non-magnetic hematite also occurs. The present main level of the Malmberget mine is at a depth of 1000 meters. About 14 Mt of crude ore is extracted from the orebodies each year. Development Ã¢â¬â The first stage of mining is drift development. A drift is a tunnel that is driven into the rock. Development involves construction of new areas of the mine where ore can be extracted.A development project begins with construction documents prepared by the mine planning department. Each year, the mine planning department orders development work on the basis of the forecast demand for products as well as current knowledge of the status of the orebody. A development drift goes right through the orebody. Drifts are driven with electrichydraulic drill rigs. For each charge, as many as 60 holes are drilled. Each hole is about 5 meters deep. When all the holes are drilled, they are charged with explosives. The charge is blasted at night. The loose ore is then hauled out by a front loader.This procedure is repeated until the entire development drift has been driven. The drifts can be up to 80 meters long. If necessary, the walls and ceiling of the drift are reinforced with rock b olts and/or shotcrete. When development is complete, i. e. , when several drifts have been driven in the same area, the next stage of mining can begin; namely, production drilling. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âAuthor: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. ordpress. com/ 9 Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence Production drilling Ã¢â¬â Slices of ore are drilled up with remote-controlled production drilling rigs. From their control rooms, the operators (drillers) operate several drill rigs out in the production areas via remote control. The rig drills upwards into the ore, forming fan-shaped patterns of holes. There are 10 drill holes in each series. They are no rmally about 40-45 meters deep. The holes are straight, so that subsequent charging with explosive and blasting can be done efficiently.When a pattern of holes has been drilled, the rig is moved back three meters, then drilling of the next pattern begins. About 20 of these patterns will be drilled in an 80-meter drift. Once drilling is completed in the entire drift, the holes can charged with explosive. Blasting Ã¢â¬â A robot injects explosive into the drill holes in one pattern. The explosive is manufactured by LKABÃ¢â¬â¢s own explosives company. Blasting is done every night. Each round brings down about 10,000 tonnes of ore. When the blast has been ventilated, loading with wheeled loaders can begin.Then, the next pattern is charged, etc. The procedure is repeated until the entire drift has been mined out. 8. Conclusion Ã¢â¬â Caving methods have become the underground bulk mining methods of choice and expected to continue in the foreseeable future. The growing popularity of caving methods around the world is largely due to the very low production cost and the intrinsic safety associated with this mining approach. It is often the only viable mining method for some of the lower grade massive orebodies that are becoming too deep for open pit mining. Caving of strong rock masses has ecome accepted practice even though there are still some challenges to be resolved. Strategically, most medium and large mining companies are operating or planning to operate a caving mine. Codelco's El Teniente mine in Chile and the LKAB Kiruna Mine in Sweden are among the largest and most famous caving operations in the world. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading caving operations include Rio Tinto's Northparkes mines, BHP Billiton Nickel West's Perseverance Mine and Newcrest's Telfer and Ridgeway gold mines. References: * Kvapil, R , Ã¢â¬Å"Subleve l CavingÃ¢â¬ , Underground Mining Methods Handbook. Ã¢â¬Å"d Edit ion, Vol. 2. , H. L. Hartman, ed. , SME. Littleton, CO, 1992, p. 1789 . * Geddes, P. J. , Ã¢â¬Å"Swedish Drilling and Blasting PracticeÃ¢â¬ , Trans. Int. Min. Metail. , 1 986, Sect. A. , V. 95, p. 204-207. * Alatalo. R. , Heden, H. and Ronnback, L. , Ã¢â¬Ëlarge Scale Sublevel Caving in LKAB Malmberget MineÃ¢â¬ , Proc. Int. Sym. Large Scale Underground hfining, Nov. 1985, V. 7. Lulea, p. 139- 145. * Baase, R. A. , Diment, W. D. , and Petrina, A. J. , Ã¢â¬Å"Sublevel Caving at Craigmont Mines Ltd. Ã¢â¬Å", Underground Mining Methods Handbook, W. A. Hustrulid, ed.. SME, New York, 1982, p. 898. Chatterjee, P. K. , Just, G. D. , and Ham, G. I.. Ã¢â¬ËSub-level caving simulation of 3000 pillar-recovery operation at Mount Isa mine. AustraliaÃ¢â¬ . Tram inst . min. & Met.. Sect. A. , V. 88.. Oct. 1979, p. Al47-Al55. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 10 Author: Partha Das Sharma, E. mail: [emailÃ protected] com, Blog/Website: http://miningandblasting. wordpress. com/ Sublevel caving techniqueSimplicity and low cost are the essence * Cox, LA. , Ã¢â¬Å"Latest Developments and Draw Control in Sublevel CavingÃ¢â¬ , Trans.Int. Min Metall. , 1967, V. 76, p. A149-159. * Hustrulid. A. , Ã¢â¬Å"Sublevel Cave Mining at LKAB Kinina MineÃ¢â¬ . iNCO presentation Aug. 1995. * Bull, G. and Page, C. H. (2000) Sublevel caving Ã¢â¬â todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dependable low-cost Ã¢â¬Ëore factoryÃ¢â¬â¢, in Proceedings MassMin 2000, G. Chitombo (ed), 29 October to 2 November 2000, Brisbane, Australia, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne, pp. 537Ã¢â¬â556. * Hustrulid, W. and Kvapil, R. (2008) Sublevel Caving Ã¢â¬â past and future, in Proceedings 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Mass Mining, MassMin 2008, H. Schunnesson and
Saturday, December 28, 2019
12 Develop Workplace Policy amp; Procedures for Sustainability BSBSUS501A Table of Contents PART 1:...........................................................................................................pg. 3-10 Introduction....................................................................................................pg. 3 Benefits of a Sustainability Policy................................................................pg. 4-5 Methods of Consultation/Communication of the policy.............................pg. 5-6 Set of Procedures that will Ensure Improvement in Resource Efficiency..pg. 6-8 Methods Used to Track amp; Monitor Continuous Improvement...................pg. 8-9Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Financial Impacts: The integration of the recommended policy can be undertaken within councilÃ¢â¬â¢s existing budget or through opportunities for external funding at either a local or regional level. Another significant factor is the savings on power, electricity, and resources in the long run. Risk Assessment: Simply no risks have been identified. By providing tools for the consideration of sustainability in all aspects of WCC processes, this project has the potential to enhance WCCÃ¢â¬â¢s risk management processes. Methods of Consultation/Communication of the policy WCC have a wide range of key stakeholders, thus continual engagement with these stakeholders is an absolute must. As is why there is a need for a variety of methods to be put in place in order to have continual consultation with all levels of stakeholders. WCC must engage staff of levels including Executive, senior and middle management groups as well as other staff from various departments. Methods of Consultation will include: * Regular work group meetings * One local and one regional workshop WCC, facilitated by external company experts in implementation and training in Sustainability Policies. * One on one interviews * One on one meetings * Informative projectShow MoreRelatedDevelop Workplace Policy and Procedures for Sustainability Essay4640 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesName: Christopher Buxton Course Title: Diploma of Management Unit Code: Develop Workplace Policy and Procedures for Sustainability Unit Code: BSBSU501A Assessment1. 1. Review the case study information provided and determine all legislative and regulatory documents that describe compliance requirements for this company. After reading the case study for the Tiny Opera Company I have determined through my own research that the following legislative and regulatory requirements will need to beRead MoreDevelop Workplace Policy and Procedures for Sustainability Assessment Task 11251 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDevelop policy Three policy option summaries: * Using resources wisely: * Econo-Environmental * Environmental Stewardship * Encouraging visitors to consider sustainability: Encouraging customers to make sustainable choices is the biggest environmental challenge. * Focusing on appropriate management principles: * Customer focus * Leadership * Involvement of people * Draft sustainability policy: Using resources wisely: * Econo-environmental: Read MoreSustainability @ Macville Essay1091 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBSBSUS501A Develop workplace policy and procedure for sustainability Assessment Task 2 Policy review project Submission details CandidateÃ¢â¬â¢s name|john white|Phone No.|| AssessorÃ¢â¬â¢s name|judy bennett|Phone No.|| Assessment site|||| Assessment date/s||Time/s|| The Assessment Task is due on the date specified by your assessor. 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Colleen Starr started the company after moving to the small town from Sydney in the late 1970s. Colleen wanted to bring the wonder and entertainment of theatre-based performances to rural NSW. Her vision was to createRead MoreA Company Cool Cafe From 80 Collins Street Melbourne1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCafe we establish and develop the required staff behaviours to be ethical, legal, professional and respectful to all our business stakeholders and build a positive business rapports among the stakeholders. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cool Cafe HR standard: At Cool Cafe we ensure that all the current and potential staffs have the right work conditions, employment contracts, staff training and development, staff induction program. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cool Cafe Quality standard: At Cool Cafe we develop the standard procedures and protocols for foodRead MorePolicy Implementation And Review On Sustainability Essay2369 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesPolicy Implementation Review Each sustainability goal will require changes to the existing way your company does business. To try and say that sustainability is just an attitude is incorrect. With only an attitude, your company will see no recognizable or measurable change in sustainability. Transmitting the desires of the board, as expressed through policy, into actual business practices is challenging. It requires analyzing the existing way of doing business, what the desired result is, and
Friday, December 20, 2019
A well-groomed African-American man in his mid-fifties named Ã¢â¬ËKyle AldridgeÃ¢â¬â¢ was working the late 9:00 pm to 5:00 am shift at the local petrol station. He was halfway through his shift having served less than a dozen customers. Then an old angry eyed man approached Kyle. When the old man directly stared at a small skull tattoo on the front of KyleÃ¢â¬â¢s left forearm and then whispered to Kyle, Ã¢â¬Å"Your Mum isnÃ¢â¬â¢t here to help you.Ã¢â¬ It sent shivers and Goosebumps up and down Kyles back. In part, it was the deep-dark tone of the young manÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. However, it was the words the man used. Your Mum isnÃ¢â¬â¢t here to help youÃ¢â¬ ¦ The words seemed so recognizable to Kyle, but it was couched deep, deep in the cubicles of his mind. He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite identifyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think Canada was the place either. But, he did remember what occurred. He was just going to rob anything inside the boyÃ¢â¬â¢s house. He had a mask and gloves on, and defiantly didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to do what he did. However, the boy had a loving and caring mom, which annoyed and angered Kyle. As he never had a mom and was an orphan in a very abusive family. So, he quickly decided to change what he had planned. Kyle had brought his trustful black Glock nine to the robbery, with that he violently forced the poor mother to tie up her son, and then hit her with the gun over the head as the son while crying watched. After the mom slowly recovered from the concussion, Kyle had gotten bored of her, so he slowly choked her to death. The boy was screamingÃ¢â¬ ¦., Ã¢â¬Å"mum please help!!!Ã¢â¬ while Kyle approached him. Then he whispered to the sobbing boy. Your mom isnÃ¢â¬â¢t here to help you. He defiantly made a mistake by not killing the boy, but he wanted the boy to remember what happened to his loving and caring mother. This wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t KyleÃ¢â¬â¢ s first murder he had committed, but ultimately got arrested for getting caught with an unregistered gun and from check fraud, not from any of the murders or robberies or beatings that he done. He spent ten years at the Stratford centre of corrections, and when he was released he did odd jobs and low level cons to support himself. And at that instant his heart started pumping in his chestShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Short Stories:Ã Ã Characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢ShortÃ - Can usually be read in one sitting. Ã¢â¬ ¢Concise:Ã Ã Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.Ã Ã This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot Ã¢â¬ ¢Usually tries to leave behind aÃ single impressionÃ or effect.Ã Ã Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. Ã¢â¬ ¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringingÃ personal experiencesÃ andÃ prior knowledgeÃ to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. AÃ short storyÃ like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), Ã¢â¬Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.Ã¢â¬ In the Cambridge Advanced LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is Ã¢â¬Å"The Secret Life of Walter MittyÃ¢â¬â¢ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories Ã¢â¬Å"Miss BrillÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a weddingÃ¢â¬ written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe short stories Ã¢â¬Å"The IdolÃ¢â¬ by Adolfo Bioy Casares and Ã¢â¬Å"AxolotlÃ¢â¬ by Julio CortÃ ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In Ã¢â¬Å"AxolotlÃ¢â¬ , the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The End. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Emma Barrett,Ã¢â¬ the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. 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